This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect.
That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. Using In-text Citation Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. References Derwing, T. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Web page with author: In-text citation Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S.
Reference entry All things Nittany. Reference entry American Psychological Association. General Guidelines In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. Celebrating our diversity. References to published presentations are cited much like contributions to books, with the addition of information about the date and place of the conference. References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references. The following examples illustrate the name—year system. In this system sometimes called the Harvard system , in-text references consist of the surname of the author or authors and the year of publication of the document.
End references are unnumbered and appear in alphabetical order by author and year of publication, with multiple works by the same author listed in chronological order. Each example of an end reference is accompanied here by an example of a corresponding in-text reference. For more details and many more examples, see Chapter 29 of Scientific Style and Format. For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text.
The year of publication follows the author list. Use periods to separate each element, including author s , date of publication, article and journal title, and volume or issue information. Location usually the page range for the article is preceded by a colon. For the in-text reference, use parentheses and list author s by surname followed by year of publication. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds.
Am J Vet Res. In the end reference, separate information about author s , date, title, edition, and publication by periods. Place of publication: publisher.
Microbiology: laboratory theory and application. New York NY : Springer. Detroit MI : Thompson Gale. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. APSnet: plant pathology online. For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list , followed by an ellipsis. Scientific Style and Format Citation Quick Guide Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references also known as citations within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1 citation—sequence; 2 name—year; and 3 citation—name.
Citation—Sequence and Citation—Name. Citation—Sequence and Citation—Name The following examples illustrate the citation—sequence and citation—name systems.
Journals List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Article title. Journal title. Date;volume issue :location. Volume with no issue or other subdivision Laskowski DA. Issue with no volume Sabatier R. Books Separate information about author s , title, edition, and publication by periods.
The basic format is as follows: Author s. Organization as author Advanced Life Support Group. Author s plus editor s or translator s Klarsfeld A, Revah F. Chapter or other part of a book, same author s Gawande A. Chapter or other part of a book, different authors Rapley R. Multivolume work as a whole Alkire LG, editor.
In-text Citation - APA Quick Citation Guide - Library Guides at Penn State University
Dissertations and Theses Lutz M. Newspapers Weiss R. Website Format: Title of Homepage. Online journal article Format: Author s of article. Example: Fogarty M. Forthcoming or Unpublished Material Not all forthcoming or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in reference lists.
In Text Citation
Book: Goldstein DS. Personal communication References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references. Name—Year The following examples illustrate the name—year system. Journals For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text. Volume issue :location. Smart et al.
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Pizzi et al. Gardos et al. Heemskerk et al. Ramstrom et al. Sabatier Books In the end reference, separate information about author s , date, title, edition, and publication by periods. Ferrozzi et al. How to Write and Publish a Research Paper , 6th edn. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. The Chicago Manual of Style , 16th edn. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th edn.
Correction: An earlier version of the post stated that f or citations that fall into the second category, the APA suggests listing the first three names followed by et al. This has been corrected to clarify that the APA suggests listing all the names at first mention. You're looking to give wings to your academic career and publication journey.
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