Aspiring college instructors also need to know much more now in order to teach effectively. A large and increasing body of useful knowledge has accumulated about learning and pedagogy, as well as the design and effectiveness of alternative methods of instruction. Meanwhile, the advent of new technologies has given rise to methods of teaching that require special training.
As evidence accumulates about promising ways of engaging students actively, identifying difficulties they are having in learning the material and adjusting teaching methods accordingly, the current gaps in the preparation most graduate students receive become more and more of a handicap. Universities have already begun to prepare graduate students to teach by giving them opportunities to assist professors in large lecture courses and by creating centers where they can get help to become better instructors. More departments are starting to provide or even require a limited amount of instruction in how to teach.
Nevertheless, simply allowing grad students to serve as largely unsupervised teaching assistants, or creating centers where they can receive a brief orientation or a few voluntary sessions on teaching, will not adequately equip them for a career in the classroom. A more substantial preparation is required and will become ever more necessary as the body of relevant knowledge continues to grow.
With all the talk in graduate school circles about preparing doctoral students for jobs outside academe, one has to wonder why departments spend time readying Ph. Many departments may fail to provide such instruction because they lack faculty with necessary knowledge, but provosts and deans could enlist competent teachers for such instruction from elsewhere in the university, although they may hesitate to do so, given than graduate education has always been the exclusive domain of the departments. Enterprising donors might consider giving grants to graduate schools or departments willing to make the necessary reforms.
If even a few leading universities responded to such an invitation, others would probably follow suit. Creating a teaching faculty. The seeds of such a change already exist through the proliferation of instructors who are not on the tenure track but are hired on a year-to- year basis or a somewhat longer term to teach basic undergraduate courses. The multiplication of such instructors has largely been an ad hoc response to the need to cut costs in order to cope with severe financial pressures resulting from reductions in state support and larger student enrollments.
But researchers are discovering that relying on casually hired, part-time teachers can have adverse effects on graduation rates and the quality of instruction. Sooner or later, the present practices seem bound to give way to more satisfactory arrangements. One plausible outcome would be to create a carefully selected, full-time teaching faculty, the members of which would lack tenure but receive appointments for a significant term of years with enforceable guarantees of academic freedom and adequate notice if their contracts are not renewed. Such instructors would receive opportunities for professional development to become more knowledgeable and proficient as teachers, and they would teach more hours per week than the tenured faculty.
In return, they would receive adequate salaries, benefits and facilities and would share in deliberations over educational policy, though not in matters involving research and the appointment and promotion of tenure-track professors. These faculty members would be better trained in teaching and learning than the current research-oriented faculty, although tenured professors who wish to teach introductory or general education courses would, of course, be welcome to do so.
Being chiefly engaged in teaching, they might also be more inclined to experiment with new and better methods of instruction if they were encouraged to do so. A reform of this sort would undoubtedly cost more than most universities currently pay their non-tenure-track instructors though less than having tenured faculty teach the lower-level courses.
Even so, the shabby treatment of many part-time instructors is hard to justify, and higher costs seem inevitable once adjunct faculties become more organized and use their collective strength to bargain for better terms. Progress may have to come gradually as finances permit. Rethinking the undergraduate curriculum. The familiar division into fields of concentration, electives and general education leaves too little room for students to pursue all of the objectives that professors themselves deem important for a well-rounded college education.
This tripartite structure, with its emphasis on the major and its embrace of distribution requirements and extensive electives, was introduced by research universities and designed more to satisfy the interests of a tenured, research-oriented faculty than to achieve the various aims of a good undergraduate education. The existing structure is unlikely to change so long as decisions about the curriculum remain under the exclusive control of the tenure-track professors who benefit from the status quo.
By now, the standard curriculum has become so firmly rooted that during the periodic reviews conducted in most universities, the faculty rarely pause to examine the tripartite division and its effect upon the established goals of undergraduate education. Instead, the practice of reserving up to half of the required number of credits for the major is simply taken for granted along with maintaining a distribution requirement and preserving an ample segment of the curriculum for electives.
The obvious remedy is to include the non-tenure-track instructors who currently make up a majority of the teaching faculty in curricular reviews so that all those who play a substantial part in trying to achieve the goals of undergraduate education can participate in the process. It is anomalous to allow the tenure-track faculty to enjoy exclusive power over the curriculum when they provide such a limited share of the teaching.
Such a reform might be difficult under current conditions in many colleges where most undergraduate instructors serve part-time, are often chosen haphazardly and frequently lack either the time or the interest to participate fully in a review of its undergraduate program. If adjunct instructors achieve the status previously described, however, their prominent role in teaching undergraduates should entitle them to a seat at the table to discuss the educational program, including its current structure.
Such a move could at least increase the likelihood of a serious discussion of the existing curricular structure to determine whether it truly serves the multiple aims of undergraduate education. Colleges should also consider allowing some meaningful participation by members of the administrative staff who are prominently involved in college life, such as deans of student affairs and directors of admission.
The current division between formal instruction and the extracurriculum is arbitrary, since many goals of undergraduate education, such as moral development and preparation for citizenship, are influenced significantly by the policies for admitting students, the administration of rules for student behavior, the advising of undergraduates, the nature of residential life and the extracurricular activities in which many students participate.
Representatives from all groups responsible for the policies and practices that affect these goals should have something to contribute to reviews of undergraduate education. Finally, there is an urgent need for more and better research both to improve the quality of undergraduate education and to increase the number of students who complete their studies.
Among the many questions deserving further exploration, four lines of inquiry seem especially important. The importance of this last point can scarcely be overestimated. Without reliable measures of learning, competition for students can do little to improve the quality of instruction, since applicants have no way of knowing which college offers them the best teaching.
Provosts, deans and departments will have difficulty identifying weaknesses in their academic programs in need of corrective action. Academic leaders will be handicapped in trying to persuade their professors to change the way they teach if they cannot offer convincing evidence that alternative methods will bring improved results. Faculty members will do less to improve their teaching if they continue to lack adequate ways to discover how much their students are learning.
All these reforms could do a lot to improve the quality of undergraduate education -- as well as increase levels of attainment. With more research and experimentation, other useful ideas will doubtless continue to appear. Be the first to know. Get our free daily newsletter. Advice to highly sensitive academics for avoiding burnout opinion. How to write an effective diversity statement essay. Advice for students so they don't sound silly in emails essay. Mental health is low priority for community colleges. Racial inequality, at college and in the workplace.
The importance of enhancing the relevance of the liberal arts to students today opinion.
Universities identify campus-specific sexual assault issues. View the discussion thread. Google Tag Manager. Advertise About Contact Subscribe. Print This. Improving the Quality of Education. By Derek Bok. Education Institutions have a responsibility to dissuade students from pursuing fields of study in which they are unlikely to succeed. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Education is as vital and as food and shelter. It plays an important role in moulding one's career. In recent times, a lot of students couldn't pursue their career through their relevant field of study due to lack of proper guidance.
In this essay I would give my viewpoints on the significance of education Institutions handling this delicate issue. Education Institute need not only impart education but create awareness among the students about various careers relating to their field of interest.
To begin with, schools should conduct activities to bring out the talent of a child and demonstrate careers related to it. In addition to it, they should involve their parents to support them and conduct regular counseling sessions for them. Secondly, every institutions should compulsorily announce scholarship seats. It helps in forming batches with real talents. These people surely brings fame to the institutes and every Institutes look forward for the same. Finally, the most debated point of recent time is to eradicate quota based admissions for minority sections of Society.
Eventually, by doing this, most eligible student can get to study and not the one who enters through some quota. On the other hand, we will find many education Institutions corrupt. Unlike, other countries, Indian reputed schools demand donations and high fees , which a middle and lower middle class set of people cant afford. However, many of them after completion of their secondary school, they opt for courses depending upon their fee paying capacity and not their caliber.
This situation have made thousands of students bury their dreams. To conclude, Education Institutions can make or break one's career. Its regarded a holy place for every student and any step taking by the Institute impacts the students life. So, providing the right guidance to its every students should be their prime focus, this can bring prosperity to the society as a whole. Some people think only students who get the best academic results should be rewarded.
Other say that students who show improvements be rewarded? Discuss both points of view and give your opinion.
It is indisputable that rewards and incentives motivate individuals to keep working for better results and improvement. Students, particularly need this motivation to concentrate and keep focused in their studies. That is the only possible way by rewarding them for their achievement and efforts no matter whether they are higher score achiever or students who show improvement in their studies.
Indian Education System Essay
Student of all level try to improve when they have a feeling that their hard work is going to be appreciated. Many universities and colleges have rewards and scholarships programs so that student can feel appreciated for the efforts they have made. Consequently, these little incentives and rewards play an indispensable role later in their career and practical life.
On the other hand, many student also drop out from schools and universities just because they are not appreciated and encouraged to work hard so that they keep focused until they complete their studies. However, most of the time, average and weak students are discouraged and bullied in schools and universities. As a result, they decide to drop out and give up. Consequently, they end up doing work in factories as a labor with the feeling of inferior complex.
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Universities and schools are required some amendments in their policies to address these issues and take appropriate steps in well and balanced manner to reward all students since everyone has a right to have a better career. You can feedback below. Click here to post comments. Some people think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities, while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities studying together. Discuss both views and state your own opinion. Few individuals exhort that school should select students based on their academic profile, while others advocate it with different abilities.
Some children born with innate abilities, and some learn with experience. While both of them are important for the development of society, I believe that students should not be discriminated according to their academic abilities. Smart and intelligent students represent the face of country. In schools, they learn how to handle economic problems, poverty and employment issues. If they are not getting opportunities to learn how to handle these rudimentary issues, then a country could observe a decline in overall growth.
It is only possible, if students are segregated based on their academic profile and interest. Teachers can pay close attention to them, which would help them to grow academically.
Short Essay on Education System in India
It has been empirically proven that, if students are selected based on their capabilities, they can perform better in every aspect. Conversely, it is not fare to teach students based on their abilities. If teaching both types of students together, weak students can get motivation from them, which could eventually increase skills and abilities.
Jawarlal Nehru, first prime minister of India said, "country can only prosper, when education institute stop discriminating students and teach them equally. Eventually, teaching without discrimination will create a pool of individuals with different skill set, which could increase the growth prospect of a country. In conclusion, it is prudent to advice and encourage bright students, whilst we should not neglect others. Students are the building blocks of future.
My personal opinion schools should not discriminate students based on their abilities. Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Nowadays, more and more students are unconscious about how to choose their major. They think if they need to choose the subject that they love or choose the subject that is good and useful for the society in the future. It is no doubt that there are some benefits to study a major is about the technology and science. If most of the students study these kinds of major, there will be a sharp increase in the technical development, the productivity will be improved and produce more high-tech products, as a result, the living standard will be better that before and it will have a rise in the economic growth.
Moreover, students may get high salary, if they find a job that needs a lot of skill about technology or science.
Present Education System in India
On the other hand, the others think that students need to study the subject that they love it. In addition, different people have different favorite major, not all the students only study technology and science, it can makes the society develop in many kinds of ways, such as literature, art, sports. In conclusion, I believe that students need to choose the subject that they love, the reason for this is students can have more incentive to study and they can have a good mark in their exam.
I think university could add some additional subjects about technology or science for students who do not learn these, let students learn some knowledge about technology or science. Hello, can you give me a feedback on my essay please? What should I improve to reach band ? Tests and examinations are a central feature of school systems in many countries. Do you think the educational benefits of testing outweigh any disadvantages?
Assessing students includes many methods; however the majority of educational institutions regard examinations as the most efficient. Even though testing system is practiced in many countries and has many benefits, this system has become outdated and dilapidated. Mostly, exams are in the written form consisting of tests and theoretical questions, hence practical skills and critical thinking play a minor role in assessment.
By cramming for exams scholars remember information only for short period of time, meanwhile practical learning could give a lot more effective results. Another drawback of testing system is inaccuracy of exam results because scholars are pressured under limited time and strict conditions. There were many cases where students passed their exam and scored less than their real knowledge and abilities.
Some people claim that written assessment provide effective studying by tracking the progress and enhancing competition among students. However, this can give a rise to conflicts among students or pupils and their parents, inferiority complexes and other consequences. Moreover different attitude of teacher towards pupils can lead to the unfair results too.
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