This has seen the growth of global economies by tenfold. Big multinational companies like Coca-Cola are taking advantage of globalization by increasing their levels of production and focusing on how to maximize profits. This has dwarfed the emerging small businesses in the market as they cannot cope with the increasing demand for goods and services in the market and the high cost of production. Advancement of globalization has led to the restructuring of companies both in developed and developing nations.
Developed nations are exploiting the developing countries by setting up many of their industries in these impoverished nations. They take advantage of the surplus of raw materials, decreased the cost of production and low wages to employees. These industries know that developing countries have less or no strict rules when it comes to pollution and also few requirements needed to be approved to set up industries unlike in developed countries. Once these industries exhaust the resources of a nation, they relocate to new areas with initial greener pasture to them.
The vicious cycle continues as these multinational companies use their financial muscle to maneuver their desires to the unsuspecting host nation. Globalization has given countries like the United States and Western nations the unfair advantage over other countries to control the world. They wield and possess advanced communication, information systems and have immense financial powers. They know too well that they are far much ahead of other nations hence use these advantages to subtly enforce their agendas of creating wealth at the expense of uplifting other problems faced by developing countries.
This has propagated some of the developed countries to be now called middle income earning lands. When the question of developed nations comes to play, they discriminate the developing country to create the theme of dependence and give them dominion over the rest of the nations. Studies revealed by the United Nations Development Report have shown that globalization has immensely increased the gap between developed and developing countries.
The interdependence among nations saw the world fall into economic crisis when the United States stock exchange market went into recession in As long as developed nations negatively use their advancement to oppress the developing countries, we will not realize the fruits of globalization. Globalization has led to increased focus on machinery and less emphasis on face-to-face communication.
They are companies that expand their operations beyond the territorial borders of their mother country. They venture into new grounds and establish themselves there. In doing this, they employ the locals and the natives in the satellite companies. This is one of the benefits of globalization. The list can be extrapolated as the examples are many. All these are situations that have risen up and brought about employment for people, and they all came up as a result of globalization. As with the job creation, a globalization pros and cons essay should deal with the observation of the harsh face of the concept in some situations.
In as much as globalization is an excellent idea, it has brought about agony and cost some people in different countries their rightful place in their employment profile. People who ought to have standard and worthy jobs end up doing odd jobs or lacking them altogether because of the effects of globalization.
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The problems develop primarily out of the competition. For instance, a multinational company that sprawls over to foreign countries will, for most of the time, be focusing on the local natives to provide the primary forms of labor. The initial employees and those who feel they had the right to get employed by the company over the new employees will then be dejected. Competition for the limited slots of employment also comes into play, and the end result is always cheaper labor for the employer but substantial wages for the employee.
Exchange programs as discussed in many globalization essays by some writers have proved to be detrimental to the job security of citizens, especially in the developing countries. The importation of expert workers into a nation puts the locals at risk of unemployment. This is always definite. Many globalization pros and cons essays have been written to complement similar books and agitate for fairness in such a system. It is difficult to manage a society where the owners of the community itself are disgruntled, especially by matters relating to economy and poverty.
The government has the obligation to serve and protect the citizenry, not just from physical attacks but also from the artificial economic crisis. A globalization essay example will highlight the fact that when foreigners are prioritized in the job industry over the citizens, a financial crisis is always looming. This is a precarious situation for a nation. In order to avoid it, the government can regulate the numbers of expatriates or check the employment status of the population so that it strikes a balance between the two.
To be safe, regulations made by the government agencies should focus on protecting the jobs that should go to the citizens first before going to expatriates. Furthermore, the reduction in fertility rate in the developing world as a whole from 4. Thus, despite seemingly unequal distribution of income within these developing countries, their economic growth and development have brought about improved standards of living and welfare for the population as a whole.
Per capita gross domestic product GDP growth among post globalizing countries accelerated from 1. This acceleration in growth seems even more remarkable given that the rich countries saw steady declines in growth from a high of 4. Also, the non-globalizing developing countries seem to fare worse than the globalizers, with the former's annual growth rates falling from highs of 3.
This rapid growth among the globalizers is not simply due to the strong performances of China and India in the s and s—18 out of the 24 globalizers experienced increases in growth, many of them quite substantial. The globalization of the late 20th and early 21st centuries has led to the resurfacing of the idea that the growth of economic interdependence promotes peace. Some opponents of globalization see the phenomenon as a promotion of corporate interests. Globalization allows corporations to outsource manufacturing and service jobs from high cost locations, creating economic opportunities with the most competitive wages and worker benefits.
While it is true that free trade encourages globalization among countries, some countries try to protect their domestic suppliers. The main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural productions. Larger countries often subsidize their farmers e. Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system of global democracy that would give world citizens a say in political organizations. This would, in their view, bypass nation-states, corporate oligopolies, ideological Non-governmental organizations NGO , political cults and mafias.
One of its most prolific proponents is the British political thinker David Held. Advocates of democratic globalization argue that economic expansion and development should be the first phase of democratic globalization, which is to be followed by a phase of building global political institutions.
Francesco Stipo , Director of the United States Association of the Club of Rome , advocates unifying nations under a world government , suggesting that it "should reflect the political and economic balances of world nations. A world confederation would not supersede the authority of the State governments but rather complement it, as both the States and the world authority would have power within their sphere of competence".
Global civics suggests that civics can be understood, in a global sense, as a social contract between global citizens in the age of interdependence and interaction. The disseminators of the concept define it as the notion that we have certain rights and responsibilities towards each other by the mere fact of being human on Earth.
An early incarnation of this sentiment can be found in Socrates , whom Plutarch quoted as saying: "I am not an Athenian, or a Greek, but a citizen of the world. Baha'i-inspired author Meyjes, while favoring the single world community and emergent global consciousness, warns of globalization  as a cloak for an expeditious economic, social, and cultural Anglo-dominance that is insufficiently inclusive to inform the emergence of an optimal world civilization. He proposes a process of " universalization " as an alternative. Cosmopolitanism is the proposal that all human ethnic groups belong to a single community based on a shared morality.
A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. The cosmopolitan community is one in which individuals from different places e. For instance, Kwame Anthony Appiah suggests the possibility of a cosmopolitan community in which individuals from varying locations physical, economic, etc. One example is the security cooperation between the United States and the former Soviet Union after the end of the Cold War, which astonished international society.
The most recent debate around nuclear energy and the non-alternative coal-burning power plants constitutes one more consensus on what not to do. Thirdly, significant achievements in IC can be observed through development studies. Economic cooperation - One of the biggest challenges in with globalization is that many believe the progress made in the past decades are now back tracking.
The back tracking of globalization has coined the term "Slobalization. Anti-globalization, or counter-globalization,  consists of a number of criticisms of globalization but, in general, is critical of the globalization of corporate capitalism.
Opponents of globalization argue that there is unequal power and respect in terms of international trade between the developed and underdeveloped countries of the world. In The Revolt of the Elites and the Betrayal of Democracy , Christopher Lasch analyzes  the widening gap between the top and bottom of the social composition in the United States. According to Lasch, the new elites, i.
In this, they oppose the old bourgeoisie of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which was constrained by its spatial stability to a minimum of rooting and civic obligations.
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Globalization, according to the sociologist, has turned elites into tourists in their own countries. The de-nationalisation of business enterprise tends to produce a class who see themselves as "world citizens, but without accepting Their ties to an international culture of work, leisure, information — make many of them deeply indifferent to the prospect of national decline. Instead of financing public services and the public treasury, new elites are investing their money in improving their voluntary ghettos: private schools in their residential neighborhoods, private police, garbage collection systems.
They have "withdrawn from common life". Composed of those who control the international flows of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations and institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate.
So, the political debate is limited mainly to the dominant classes and political ideologies lose all contact with the concerns of the ordinary citizen. The result of this is that no one has a likely solution to these problems and that there are furious ideological battles on related issues. However, they remain protected from the problems affecting the working classes: the decline of industrial activity, the resulting loss of employment, the decline of the middle class, increasing the number of the poor, the rising crime rate, growing drug trafficking, the urban crisis.
Snow et al. One of the most infamous tactics of the movement is the Battle of Seattle in , where there were protests against the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial Meeting. Capital markets have to do with raising and investing money in various human enterprises. Increasing integration of these financial markets between countries leads to the emergence of a global capital marketplace or a single world market. In the long run, increased movement of capital between countries tends to favor owners of capital more than any other group; in the short run, owners and workers in specific sectors in capital-exporting countries bear much of the burden of adjusting to increased movement of capital.
Those opposed to capital market integration on the basis of human rights issues are especially disturbed by the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by global and international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards. In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim free trade without measures in place to protect the under-capitalized will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South".
Corporatist ideology, which privileges the rights of corporations artificial or juridical persons over those of natural persons , is an underlying factor in the recent rapid expansion of global commerce. A related contemporary ideology, consumerism , which encourages the personal acquisition of goods and services, also drives globalization. Concern over the treatment of consumers by large corporations has spawned substantial activism, and the incorporation of consumer education into school curricula.
Social activists hold materialism is connected to global retail merchandizing and supplier convergence , war , greed, anomie , crime , environmental degradation, and general social malaise and discontent. One variation on this topic is activism by postconsumers , with the strategic emphasis on moving beyond addictive consumerism. The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a " movement of movements "—who advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global economic integration as problems. Those involved, however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization , insisting that they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose only the global expansion of corporate power.
Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. They often create partnerships where they work towards improving the lives of those who live in developing countries by building schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts.
The economies of the world have developed unevenly, historically, such that entire geographical regions were left mired in poverty and disease while others began to reduce poverty and disease on a wholesale basis. From around through at least , the GDP gap, while still wide, appeared to be closing and, in some more rapidly developing countries , life expectancies began to rise. Overall equality across humanity, considered as individuals, has improved very little. Within the decade between and , income inequality grew even in traditionally egalitarian countries like Germany, Sweden and Denmark.
With a few exceptions—France, Japan, Spain—the top 10 percent of earners in most advanced economies raced ahead, while the bottom 10 percent fell further behind. Critics of globalization argue that globalization results in weak labor unions : the surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever-growing number of companies in transition weakened labor unions in high-cost areas. Unions become less effective and workers their enthusiasm for unions when membership begins to decline.
Examples include quarrying , salvage, and farm work as well as trafficking, bondage, forced labor, prostitution and pornography. Women often participate in the workforce in precarious work , including export-oriented employment. Evidence suggests that while globalization has expanded women's access to employment, the long-term goal of transforming gender inequalities remains unmet and appears unattainable without regulation of capital and a reorientation and expansion of the state's role in funding public goods and providing a social safety net.
In , a study published by the IMF posited that neoliberalism , the ideological backbone of contemporary globalized capitalism, has been "oversold", with the benefits of neoliberal policies being "fairly difficult to establish when looking at a broad group of countries" and the costs, most significantly higher income inequality within nations, "hurt the level and sustainability of growth. Beginning in the s, opposition arose to the idea of a world government, as advocated by organizations such as the World Federalist Movement WFM.
Those who oppose global governance typically do so on objections that the idea is unfeasible, inevitably oppressive, or simply unnecessary. Such reasoning dates back to the founding of the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology    and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment. Environmentalist concerns with globalization include issues such as global warming , climate change , global water supply and water crises , inequity in energy consumption and energy conservation , transnational air pollution and pollution of the world ocean , overpopulation , world habitat sustainability , deforestation , biodiversity loss and species extinction.
One critique of globalization is that natural resources of the poor have been systematically taken over by the rich and the pollution promulgated by the rich is systematically dumped on the poor. Globalization is thus leading to a type of" environmental apartheid ". In her book Ancient Futures , Norberg-Hodge claims that "centuries of ecological balance and social harmony are under threat from the pressures of development and globalization. Although globalization takes similar steps in most countries, scholars such as Hodge claim that it might not be effective to certain countries and that globalization has actually moved some countries backward instead of developing them.
A related area of concern is the pollution haven hypothesis , which posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they require see Race to the bottom. Developing countries with cheap resources and labor tend to have less stringent environmental regulations , and conversely, nations with stricter environmental regulations become more expensive for companies as a result of the costs associated with meeting these standards.
Thus, companies that choose to physically invest in foreign countries tend to re locate to the countries with the lowest environmental standards or weakest enforcement. The European Union—Mercosur Free Trade Agreement , which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas,  has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners. The globalization of food production is associated with a more efficient system of food production.
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This is because crops are grown in countries with optimum growing conditions. This improvement causes an increase in the world's food supply which encourages improved food security. Norway's limited crop range advocates globalization of food production and availability.http://bgd.qc.ca/american-book-publishing-record-volume-44.php
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The northern-most country in Europe requires trade with other countries to ensure population food demands are met. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Globalization disambiguation. Main article: History of globalization. See also: Timeline of international trade. Main article: Archaic globalization.
Main article: Proto-globalization. Main article: Economic globalization. Main article: Cultural globalization. Main article: Political globalization. See also: Internet. See also: List of globalization-related indices. See also: Criticisms of globalization. Main article: Democratic globalization. Main articles: Global civics and Multiculturalism. See also: Global citizenship. Main article: Anti-globalization movement. Main article: Anti-capitalist movements.
Main articles: Anti-corporatism and Anti-consumerism. Main article: Global justice movement. Main articles: Social inequality and International inequality. Main article: Global governance. Main article: Environmentalism. See also: Global warming , Climate change , and Deforestation. Main article: Food security. Civilizing mission Cosmopolitanism Deglobalization Environmental racism Eurasianism Franchising Free trade Global civics Global commons Global mobility Globalism Global public goods List of bilateral free-trade agreements List of globalization-related indices List of multilateral free-trade agreements Middle East and globalization Neorealism international relations North—South divide Outline of globalization Postdevelopment theory Purple economy Technocapitalism Transnational cinema Transnational citizenship Triadization United Nations Millennium Declaration Vermeer's Hat World Englishes.
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