Emotions nevertheless resist their hypothetical nature, proposing their own cause or proper meaning. They define in order to secure themselves. They move to put uncertainty—and the vagaries of interpretation—to rest de Man The only creature featured in manuscript illuminations produced by the McDragon monastery in the late sixth century were dragons.
Recent work by dragonologists like Bloobler-Wickett suggests that what Holloway identifies as a griffin is, in fact, a poorly rendered baby dragon, likely painted by an apprentice dragonologist. I pose the form-medium distinction heuristically because it allows us to get at two different dimensions of a literary text that relate in distinct ways to readerly agency.
To acknowledge. Acknowledgment notes should be used sparingly, and they are most appropriate for professional writers. Scholars often use notes to acknowledge when a colleague led them to a particularly fruitful source or were directly and uniquely responsible for helping them develop an important idea through informal means like conversation and peer review. Now that you know when to use notes, learn all the ins and outs of styling them.
Notes may be styled either as footnotes or endnotes, according to the preference of your teacher, institution, or publisher. In its publications, the MLA uses endnotes. Block quotations are generally to be avoided in notes. Note numbers in the text are generally placed after a mark of punctuation. Whenever possible, place note numbers at the end of sentences:. If clarity demands that the note be placed somewhere other than at the end of the sentence, find the clearest and least distracting spot for it:. If the text you quote includes a footnote, do not reproduce the note number in your quote unless there is a unique and compelling reason to do so.
You should generally build references to notes into the main body of your work whenever possible. She has a decade and a half of editorial experience and holds a PhD in Middle English from the University of Rochester. Before coming to the MLA, she taught college courses in writing and literature.
Is the following footnote citation for an unpublished letter in correct accordingto the MLA style? I would like to include a bibliographic footnote that to provides additional sources. I would prefer to provide the full bibliographic entry for that source in the footnote. Otherwise, it is hard to find the entries in the long Works Cited list and without the full entry folks have a hard time knowing why they would want to consult these source.
If I do this, am I also including that bibliographic entries in the Works Cited list? When citing an interviewee who needs to remain anonymous, MLA says to use an endnote rather than citing the source on the Works Cited page. How would that endnote look? For books, include the author or editor name after the book title. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper. Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock.
Mississippi Review Amis, Kingsley. By Dale Salwak. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo, If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks. Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content. Place the name of the Website in italics, give the publisher name or sponsor , the publication date, the medium of publication Web , and the date of access. Remember that if no publisher name is give, insert the abbreviation n.
Zinkievich, Craig. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. Then, give the title of the speech if any in quotation marks.
MLA Examples Handout
Follow with the name of the meeting and organization, the location of the occasion, and the date. Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation e. Remember to use the abbreviation n. Stein, Bob. Computers and Writing Conference. Purdue University. Keynote Address. Cite published conference proceedings like a book.
If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the published proceedings title. The medium of publication is Print. LastName, FirstName, ed. Place of publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Conference Date, Conference Location. Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks. Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings. LastName, FirstName. Conference Editor s. Give the title of the artwork in italics. Provide the date of composition. If the date of composition is unknown, place the abbreviation n.
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Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution. For photographic reproductions of artwork e. Museo del Prado , Madrid. By Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. List films in theaters or not yet on DVD or video by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. Use the abbreviation perf. List film as the medium of publication. The Usual Suspects. Bryan Singer. Polygram, To emphasize specific performers perf. Lucas, George, dir. Twentieth Century Fox, List films by their title.
Include the name of the director, the distributor, and the release year. End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication e. Ed Wood. Tim Burton. Touchstone, Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the city, and the date of broadcast. End with the publication medium e. Television, Radio. WXIA, Atlanta. Cite recorded television episodes like films see above. Begin with the episode name in quotation marks.
Follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series e. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.
End with the medium of publication e. DVD, Videocassette, Laser disc. Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors, writers, performers, producers between the title and the distributor name. Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors e. Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen. Kevin Bright. Warner Brothers, List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers.
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Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers comp. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title.
Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date or n. List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry e. CD, LP, Audiocassette. Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date, include this information before the manufacturer name.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. The 9 Symphonies. NBC Symphony Orchestra. Arturo Toscanini. RCA, Determine the type of work to cite e. End the entry with the name of the digital format e. Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined. Bentley, Phyllis. PDF file. There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA, though there are always exceptions to these rules.
This guide provides only a very small portion of the abbreviations suggested by MLA. Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters, except in the case of proper names:. Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter, unless referring to an internet suffix, where the period should come before the abbreviation:. Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations:. For more on upper- and lowercase letter abbreviation designations, see Section 7. Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations.
Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations:. For more information on time designations, see Section 7. Abbreviate country, province, and state names. For more information on scholarly abbreviations, see Section 7. You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher. Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names.
Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use. For more information on publisher names, see Section 7. Environmental Defense Fund, 8 May Clinton, Bill. Interview by Andrew C.
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New York Times, May Dean, Cornelia. New York Times, 22 May Ebert, Roger. Davis Guggenheim. Sun-Times News Group, 2 June Cooler Heads Coalition, Gowdy, John. An Inconvenient Truth. Al Gore, Billy West. Paramount, Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality? New York: Springer, Nordhaus, William D. Shulte, Bret. Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Summary: MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. General Format. Paper Format. General Guidelines. Formatting the First Page of Your Paper.
Section Headings. In-Text Citations. Basic In-Text Citation Rules. Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U. Citing Authors with Same Last Names. Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors. Jones et al. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author. Citing Multivolume Works. Citing the Bible. Citing Indirect Sources.
Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet. Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo , Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.
Electronic Sources. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Multiple Citations. When a Citation Is Not Needed. MLA Formatting Quotations. Short Quotations. Long Quotations. They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr.
Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Bronte The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations. Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart; And passing even into my purer mind, With tranquil restoration. MLA Footnotes and Endnotes. On the problems related to repressed memory recovery, see Wollens ; for a contrasting view, see Pyle 43; Johnson, Hull, Snyder ; Krieg Several other studies point to this same conclusion.
See Johnson and Hull , Kather , Krieg Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes in the Document Body. Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis,7 so we would do well to ignore it. For years, scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness. Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes. Basic Format. Basic Rules. Capitalization and Punctuation. Listing Author Names. More than One Work by an Author.
Work with No Known Author. Book with One Author. Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. Denver: MacMurray, Book with More Than One Author. Two or More Books by the Same Author. Book by a Corporate Author or Organization.
American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. New York: Random, Book with No Author. Encyclopedia of Indiana. New York: Somerset, They may be used for two reasons: 1 to provide the reader with additional information or explanation, or 2 to list several sources consulted but not referred to in the text, or provide commentary on a source.
The page should be titled "Notes," centered on the page. However, if your instructor has no preference, you may follow these guidelines from the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook:. For a more detailed explanation of the rules surrounding endnotes and footnotes, consult the MLA Handbook , section 6. Endnotes and Footnotes MLA recommends limited use of endnotes and footnotes as they can be distracting to the reader.
However, sometimes your instructor or editor may request that you use them.
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