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Find databases, specialist search engines and repositories to search for theses. Can't find fulltext? Unfortunately limited open source research has been done in this field till today as compared to the number of speakers of this language. However, the growing use of Unicode characters and internationalization of softwares has not only shown greater research needs for Urdu language but also provide feasible opportunities and ways to proceed further in this field for a researcher.
Today the state of the art technology to write morphologies is to use special-purpose morphology languages based on finite-state technology. Xerox Finite State Tools are mathematically elegant, flexible and modifiable. In terms of efficiency they are very fast on expense of large networks. Instead of writing conventional code, one needs to write the grammatical rules directly. A runtime code is applied by the software to the linguistic input for generating a required output morphology, tokenization, part of speech tagging etc.
Haskell is a powerful, modern, purely functional programming language, having support of higher-order functions, type classes, polymorphism and a strong type system. It is very easy to add new word classes later extensible with very minor efforts. Furthermore morphology written in FM is completely reusable. GF is a special-purpose programming language for grammars which is based on type theory. GF is a functional programming language. A morphology implementation written in FM let the GF extend it seamlessly from morphology to syntax and semantics.
This work provides following scientific contribution from our side: 1 An implementation of Urdu morphology as an open source software API having: i A type system that covers language abstraction of Urdu completely. In this thesis work, we mainly focus on an implementation of morphological or inflectional aspects of Urdu grammar. We provide following two kind of morphological analysis. In Urdu word classes nouns, verbs etc , postpositions clitics and auxiliaries are used frequently to explain different cases, tenses, aspects and moods.
However in most of the cases, these postpositions and auxiliaries appear in front sometimes behind of the word as a separate word. Therefore to know about the case of a noun or the tense of a verb, it is important to analyze words by combining them with such appeared postpositions and auxiliaries.
In combination-analysis, morphological analysis of such combinations is displayed. Further in this chapter, we have discussed about FM, the overview of this API and its available tools. It is very high-level, expressive, concise and a type safe language. The language is named for Haskell Brooks Curry, whose work in mathematical logic serves as a foundation for functional languages.
What is the difference between a systematic review and a traditional review?
Haskell is based on lambda calculus, hence the lambda we use as a logo. It provides all the features sketched above, including polymorphic typing, lazy evaluation and higher-order functions. It also has an innovative type system which supports a systematic form of overloading and a module system. It is specifically designed to handle a wide range of applications, from numerical through to symbolic. To this end, Haskell has an expressive syntax, and a rich variety of built-in data types, including arbitrary-precision integers and rationals, as well as the more conventional integer, floating-point and boolean types.
A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts is called morpheme. In morphology, words are divided into their lexical categories with the help of their inflection and by the position in which they the words are allowed to occur rules. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs are examples of some common lexical categories among most of the languages. In Urdu grammar, nouns are normally inflected in number singular, plural and case nominative, genitive, and accusative etc.
Some examples of the usability of morphology could be machine translation, information retrieval, software localization and language education. A more specific case of language education for which computational morphology is useful is CALL computer assisted language learning. It is based on an idea of using the high expressiveness provided by functional languages to define morphology. The use of Haskell gives access to powerful programming constructs and high level of abstraction, which is very useful to capture the generalization of a natural language.
Further he has generalized the ideas used for Sanskrit to a toolkit for computational linguistics named Zen. In a similar way, the FM toolkit is a successful experiment of how the morphology can be implemented in Haskell by using it as a host language while FM acts as a domain specific embedded language. The productivity and reliability of Haskell for this task has been proved by successful implementations of the morphologies for Swedish, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Latin into Haskell FM, The analyzer is a key component in a morphology system to analyze a word into its lemma and its grammatical description.
Decorated tries is currently used instead of transducers for analysis in FM which compiles very fast because Kleene's star is disallowed within a word description. GF is also a functional programming language, based on type theory.
Although morphological implementation of a language can be written directly in GF, but FM provides more control, freedom and functionality for defining morphology due to the powerful programming constructs of Haskell. Further a morphology implementation written in FM let GF extend it seamlessly from morphology to syntax and semantics. Therefore by using FM and GF, it becomes very easy to separate morphology from syntax and semantics to let a linguistic developer concentrate on each part better.
This Thesis work can also be seen as an experiment if FM can adequately capture the abstraction of Urdu. To know more about FM, one can look at the papers listed at FM, FM consists of two parts as shown in figure 2. Infrastructure for Dictionary compilation 2. Runtime applications Analyzer, Synthesizer 3. These type classes enable code reuse and provide generic algorithms for analysis, synthesis and code generation. We will only discuss General. For more details one should check the source code and FM home page FM, A morphology implementing developer should take a look on General.
Here I will only explain some of them. In Urdu, noun is described inflected in number and case. Where nominative-singular and nominative-plural could belong to a type Noun. This assignment is done by using a Table data structure defined in General. However It is important to note the role of functions in FM, as one of the most important ideas behind FM is to use functions instead of explicit tables i. This idea enables a developer to build up inflection functions by a set of auxiliary functions linguistic abstractions and more directly, the pattern matching engine can be used to capture common cases.
As the data types are enumerable finite through Param , the inflection table can be easily generated by enumerating the function's inflectional type; and by doing this, a completeness check is also performed automatically, i. The following four string functions defined in General.
The implementation then will be a new library on the top of the language independent part of FM. An Inflection engine defines all possible inflection tables paradigms for all word classes. It is represented in RulesUrdu. A lexicon provides a list of all words in the target language with their paradigms. The words belonging to closed classes are added in DictUrdu.
In both cases the name of an interface function is provided to identify to which group a certain word belongs. Here the interface functions are defined for all word classes by using the classification types and the inflection functions. The implementation of this part for Urdu is discussed in chapter 4 in detail.
Urdu and Hindi are similar in their grammatical structure and semantics but are different in script, phonology and some of the vocabulary. Urdu has a strong Perso-Arabic influence in its vocabulary and is written in a Perso-Arabic script from right to left; whereas Hindi has a strong influence of Sanskrit and the other native languages of India and is written in Devanagari script from left to right.
There can also be found several major differences between Urdu and Hindi at phonological level Naim, , preface: page iii ; e. We will not discuss them further as they are out of the scope of this thesis work. Hindustani refers to a language without any influence of Sanskrit, Persian or Arabic in terms of borrowing vocabulary. Hindi-Urdu is normally used to study what is common between Urdu and Hindi. Despite the differences discussed above, both languages share a huge amount of vocabulary and same grammatical rules. In this thesis work we will stick with the modern Urdu widely spoken in Pakistan and practiced in literature.
According to Rahman , page 2 and Grimes , Urdu-Hindi is the second most spoken language in the world after Chinese. The following table gives an idea of its size in numbers which is taken from Rahman , page 2. After that, there were many Muslim rulers, coming from central Asia Turks, Mongols, Iranians, Afghans and Mughals; who itself has hybrid ethnicity , conquered the most of the areas of South Asia currently Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal , Afghanistan and some parts of Iran, establishing the first Muslim empire in South Asia which last from 13th century to This mixed environment in South Asia resulted in a hybrid language of Arabic, Pashto, Turkish, Persian and native languages of region, which is today eventually, be known as Urdu.
Urdu came into existence due to the interaction of Muslim soldiers and the native speakers of the region. Urdu soon was used as an official language in Mughal era and gained a distinction as an important language of the region due to its wider understanding among different ethnic groups.
Despite being a younger language of the region, an enormous amount of literature and poetry can be found in Urdu today. Urdu is mostly written in Nastaleeq script which is a cursive, context-sensitive and complex system of writing for Perso-Arabic scripts.
Urdu is written from right to left. Table 3. This difference is observed only due to the use of different font here in the table above Nafees Web Naskh. According to UZT 1. However the disagreement appears due to some of the letters which only present in very small number of words and the difference of opinion about the vowels if they should be considered as letters or not. This discussion is not very important since we can locate all the letters with their IPA and Unicode from table 3.
Urdu Character set can be divided into three parts 1. The Alphabet 2. Other Symbols 3. To mark the absence of vowel after base consonant Platts, , Malik, To give a little pause inside a word.
Same as Arabic Sukun. Following is the table containing both Urdu and their equivalent Roman letters used for numbers. These honorifics are rare to find in text and are not useful for morphology. These are very rare to find in text and are not useful for morphology at all. Therefore transliteration is not provided.
Transliterations are appropriate when one wants to use the traditional orthography with all its strengths and weaknesses, all its distinctions and ambiguities but where writing or displaying or storing the original characters is impossible or inconvenient. To achieve that, a clear, strict, reversible and one to one string transliteration scheme is defined.
It is tried to make this transliteration as phonetic as possible so that even if a user wants to input the Roman version of script, he could do it at the same ease as he could type ASCII English or Urdu script. However modifications are done where found appropriate. Furthermore we want the end product to support Unicode Character set. To achieve that four useful programs have been developed section 3.
The table 3. As noted in the tables 3. We propose a very simple and straightforward solution: Lexicon will save all orthographically different words. All the graphic user interfaces for these tools are developed by Java Swing package. ICU is an open source project to implement the software internationalization in software programs. It is developed by IBM Corporation. It supports many features, including language-sensitive text, dates, time, numbers, currency, message sorting, and searching. Transliterator class. In both cases a textbox displays the Unicode values for the written text.
Even the literature found in digital format is often saved in graphical picture jpeg, gif which is not useful for any text processing. However the wide acceptance and use of Unicode characters opens a new window of possibilities for text processing for Urdu language. Today lot of Unicode based Urdu websites can be found on Internet. We even manage to find two book banks for Urdu literature in Unicode format.
An Urdu Extractor program has been developed to save Urdu Unicode based web pages, which has further been used for the extraction of lexicon automatically by appropriate techniques and tools section 5.
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Urdu Extractor program is written in Java. Java not only supports Unicode but also save string and char data in the form of Unicode characters. To extract text from web pages, the first thing to consider was to remove all HTML tags available in the page.
This method takes a web address, removes all HTML tags and returns the actual text written on that page. This method also removes the text other then Urdu Unicode text, only permitting Urdu Unicode characters defined in UrduUnicode class section 3. English and in Unicode Urdu, only Urdu text is returned.
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